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Posted by : Clamp School Saturday, 9 June 2012


A. Cognitivist

PIAGET’S VIEWS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE

Piaget outlines four basic concepts in cognitive development, namely:
o    Scheme: Describe the physical and mental actions in knowing and understanding the object.
o    Assimilation: Entering information into the scheme which has been owned.
o    Accommodation: The process of changing the scheme which has been owned by the new information.
o    Equilibrium: The move from one stage of thinking to the next stage of thinking.

Piaget's cognitive development in understanding the characteristics of a certain age appropriate based on its Phases. The phases are:
1.      Deria-motor (Sensory motor) (0-2 years). Babies develop an understanding of his world by coordinating sensory experiences with muscle movement (motor).
2.      Preoperasional (2-7 years). Divided into two, namely:
-          Symbolic (2-4 years): Children were able to present objects that are not visible and the use of the language began to evolve.
-          Intuitive (4-7 years): Children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answer to all questions.
3.      Concrete operational (7-11 years). Children are able to operationalize the various logic, but still in the form of concrete objects.
4.      Formal operational (11-15 years). Children are able to think abstractly, idealistic, and logical.


VIGOTSKY’S VIEWS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE

Although it agrees with Piaget that cognitive development occurs gradually and is characterized by the style of thinking is different, but Vygotsky disagreed with Piaget's view that children explore the world alone and form a picture of his own inner reality.
Vigotsky outlines three basic concepts in cognitive development, namely:
o      children's cognitive skills can be understood if analyzed and interpreted in developmental (by examining the origins and transformation of the initial form to the next form).
o      Cognitive ability is mediated by words, language and forms of discourse that serves as a psychological tool to help and transform mental activity.
o      cognitive ability derived from social relationships and are influenced by background sosiokultural.Vigotsky also put forward some ideas about the zone of proximal developmental (ZPD) which is controlled by a series of difficult tasks on its own child, but can be studied with the help of an adult or more capable.

The conclusion of these two statements is that there are two views of Piaget and Vygtsky which almost has the same views on cognitive development, but the underlying theory is the observation that Vygtsky development and learning occurs within a social context, ie, in a world full of people who interact with children since the child was born. This is in contrast to Piaget who view children as active learners in a world full of people. These are people who are very instrumental in helping children learn to show objects, by talking and playing, reading stories, asking questions and so forth. In other words, to be intermediary for adults and children around the world.

B. Rationalist

Rene Descartes was the first expert to put the basic theory of rational discourse in modern philosophy, especially the awareness of the mind (ratio) in an effort to get the truth (anthropocentrism). According to Descartes thought that the ratio is the only way to gain knowledge. He tried to reach his thinking on the basic principles or ideas. To that end, he uses the method of doubt or "dubium methodicum". He rejected all the thoughts in question, and then he built a strong thought through pure knowledge. Pure knowledge can only be obtained through the ratio of the man himself.
In this case, Plato emphasized the rationalist is derived from the ratio of (Latin) or rationalism (UK) which means "common mind". Therefore, philosophical views or rationalism means of reflection as a basis to get the truth.
Based on second thought, it can be said that a rationalist view assumes that innate factors have no role in human development, but only the environment that determines it. This ideology tend to examine the principles and innatetroperties ratio is responsible for regulating human behavior. Rationalism is often observed ratio throughtly and assume that the ratio should be checked for comprehense human behavior itself. Therefore, this is called a holistic ideology and associated with nativism, idealism and mentalism.




References


Anonim. Pandangan Chomsky tentang Perkembangan Bahasa. http://www.scribd.com/doc/73361988/17/PANDANGAN-CHOMSKY-TENTANG-PERKEMBANGAN-BAHASA. Diakses pada tanggal 4 April 2012.

Chaer, A. 2009. Psikolinguistik Kajian Teorik. Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta

Rifai, Achmad dan Tri Anni, Catharina. 2009. Psikologi Pendidikan. Semarang: Unnes Press
Tarigan, Henry Guntur. ( 1985). Psikolinguistik. Bandung: Angkasa

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